Non venomous Snake In India!!

Indian Rat Snake

1

The oriental ratsnake or Indian rat snake is a common species of colubrid snake found in India and local named as Dhaman. Dhaman snakes are one of the longest and fast-moving snake in India,frequently found in urban areas where rodents thrive

Common Cat Snake

2

Indian gamma snake or common cat snake is a species of rear-fanged colubrid endemic to Indian subcontinent. This species is found in the states of Sikkim and Maharashtra, It is a mildly venomous snake just like green Indian Vine snake.

Checkered Keelback

3

Checkered keelback or Indian water snake is a common species of nonvenomous snake found in India. This snake is found in or near freshwater lakes or rivers and feeds mainly on small fish and water frogs

Indian Rock Python

4.jpg

Indian Rock Python a large nonvenomous python species found in Indian subcontinent,locally called as Ajgar in Hindi. Like all snakes, Indian pythons are strict carnivores and feed on mammals and Occurs in a grasslands,swamps and rocky foothills habitats.

Common Wolf Snake

5.jpg

Common wolf snake is a species of colubrid snake commonly found in Andaman Islands and frequently misidentified with venomous snake Common Krait. The wolf snake is non-venomous snake but human killings can threaten the survival of this animal.

Common Sand Boa

6

Common Sand Boa or Indian sand boa is a nonvenomous boa species endemic to Indian subcontinent also found in Iran. Red sand boas is called do-muha snake in Hindi because of the resemblance of the tail to its head, found in dry, semi-desert scrub plains and rocky dry foothills.

Banded Racer

7

The Banded Racer is a species of colubrid snake found in India,the Non-venomous snake of small to medium-sized found in the plains of North Bengal and Kashmir. Banded Racer is one of the 20 species of Non-venomous Indian snakes, Katraj Snake Park of Pune has the maximum number of snakes species in India.

Banded Kukri Snake

8.jpg

The common kukri snake or banded kukri is a species of nonvenomous colubrid found in Indian subcontinent. Colubridae species is the largest snake family, and includes about two-thirds of all living snake species.

Common Trinket Snake

9.jpg

Common Trinket Snake is a nonvenomous constrictor species of colubrid snake native to Asia, found in southern India of Vishakhapatnam. The trinket snake feeds on rodents, other small mammals and lizards.

Black Headed Royal Snake

10.jpg

Black-headed Royal Snake found in deserts and semi deserts of Northern-western India from Kutch to non-Himalayan parts of Jammu. This species is confined in urban settlement of many parts of its range in North India.

Common Bronzeback Tree Snake

11.jpg

Common Bronzeback Snake is a species of tree-snake found in India and prefers the tree tops to life on the ground. This active snake is restless and quick, both on the ground as well as in the trees, commonly found in southern India and the Himalayan foothills.

Dog-faced Water Snake

12.jpg

Dog-faced Water Snake is a species of a colubrid snake found in coastal waters of India,commonly found in mangroves forest of Sunderbans Delta. Roar movie has a scene where Dog Faced Water Snakes are attacking one person in the mangroves forest

 

Most Common Snakes of Indian-Subcontinent!!

Indian Cobra

1

The Indian cobra also called as Nag or Naja found in the Indian subcontinent and responsible for causing the most snake bite cases in India. Naja naja is often seen with snake charmers and now protected in India under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act.

Common Krait

2.jpg

The common krait,found in the jungles of the Indian subcontinent and inflicting the most snakebites in India. It has a wide variety of habitats which includes paddy fields and low scrub jungle, as well as inhabited areas even inside houses.

Russell Viper

3.jpg

Russell’s viper also known as Daboia is venomous old world viper found in Asia throughout the Indian subcontinent. Daboia is mostly found in open, grassy or bushy areas,forested plantations and farmland.

Saw-scaled Viper

4.jpg

Saw-scaled Viper is a venomous viper species found especially the Indian subcontinent and smallest member of the Big Four Indian venomous snakes and responsible for causing the most snakebite cases.

 

Tag :  Ten Most Dangerous and Deadliest Snake of Indian Subcontinent

The 15 Most Popular and Common Snakes of Indian Sub-Continent

 

Snake Venom!!

Snake Venom

Snake venom is a highly complex cocktail of proteins, peptides, non protein toxins, carbohydrates, lipids, amines and other molecules. The chemical composition of venom varies at all taxonomic levels. Further, composition can vary considerably between snakes in different geographical locations and individuals within those populations. The composition is also subject to change based on diet, age, season and environment. The widely differing manifestations of snake bite could be attributed to complexity of venom to some extent.

The snake venom mainly contains proteins (>90%, dry weight). There are more than hundred different proteins in each venom; with elapid and viperid venoms constituting 25-70% and 80-90% of enzymes respectively. Some non-enzymatic polypeptide toxins and non-toxic proteins are also present

The snake venoms are mainly characterized as neurotoxic and hemotoxic. The neurotoxic venoms act at molecular level, by disrupting the neuromuscular junctions, limiting muscle activity while hemotoxic venoms cause tissue destruction in body systems besides their effect on circulatory system.

The venom enzymes include hydrolases, hyaluronidase, kininogenase. Other enzymes include phosphomono-and diesterases, 5’-nucleotidase, DNAase, NAD-nucleosidase, l-amino acid oxidase, phospholipase A2(PLA2), peptidases and zinc metalloproteinase hemorrhagins. Blood clotting may be stimulated by serine proteases and other pro-coagulant enzymes present in some Elapid and Viperid venoms. Certain venoms contain toxins (Russell’s viper) that activate factors V, X, IX and XIII, fibrinolysis, protein C, platelet aggregation,anticoagulation and hemorrhage.

Widespread damage to mitochondria, red blood cells, leucocytes, platelets, peripheral nerve endings, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, and other membranes is caused due to phospholipase A2, the most widespread enzyme present in the venom. Hyaluronidase aids in venom dissemination from the bite site through tissues.

 

 

 

Precautions from Snake bite!

Precaution – 1

Learn which snakes may be native to the area you are visiting and familiarize yourself with their habits before you head out hiking or camping.When learning about the snakes in the area where you live or are visiting, become familiar with which ones are venomous and which are not. Again, while you certainly want to avoid all snake bites, you’ll want to understand the differences and urgency levels in treating both kinds of bites.

1

Precaution – 2

Avoid areas where there is tall grass and brush. Try to stay on trails or clear areas where you can see where you step. If you must go into tall grass or brush, use a long stick to probe the area before stepping into it.

2

Precaution – 3

Resist sticking a hand or foot into a crevasse or hole. Snakes often curl up in dark places like holes in fallen timber or in hidden spots among boulders. Avoid snake bites by looking carefully wherever you step or place your hand. This is especially true when rock climbing or exploring in caves.

3.jpg

Precaution – 4

Realize that snakes can climb trees. Be careful while walking under low hanging Branches, or when climbing up a tree as you could easily mistake a snake for a branch.

4.jpg

Precaution – 5

Dress in protective clothing when you are out in the wilderness. Wear heavy boots and long pants.

5.jpg

Precaution – 6

Make camp in areas where snakes are less likely to be. Don’t camp near large logs, rocky areas or tall grass. Snakes are usually nocturnal so you will want to be especially careful at night. Zip your tent up tightly and keep your boots or shoes inside with you. Sleep on a cot when possible. Use a flashlight to check inside shoes and the floor of the tent before you venture out at night to use the latrine or portable toilet.

6.jpg

Precaution – 7

Be cautious when swimming, wading or fishing in lakes or rivers, especially after heavy rains. Water snakes are venomous and you could be in dire need of help very quickly if bitten.

7.jpg

Precaution – 8

Ensure that your family and pets are protected from possible encounters with snakes around your home.

  • Keep your yard and adjacent property mowed. Trim hedges and clear brush to discourage snakes from taking up residence near your home.
  • Keep your children from playing in areas where snakes could be hiding. Discourage them from going to nearby vacant lots where there is high grass and brush.
  • Use an implement when gathering firewood from an outdoor stack or when working with brush or lumber.
  • Use extreme care in the summer during drought conditions. Snakes will seek water around your garden hose, swimming pool, or under your air conditioning unit.

8.jpg

Precaution – 99.jpg

Take precautions if you own a snake to avoid being bitten.

  • Most bites happen during feeding time. Use a snake hook to avoid having to grab your snake with your hands.
  • Choose a docile snake as a pet. Corn snakes and ball pythons have reputations as snakes that are reluctant to bite.

Don’t handle your snake after having touched prey, such as mice, while the scent is still on your hands

Precaution – 10

Use caution when approaching a snake you think might be dead. Recently killed snakes still can move reflexively and even bite. Also a snake may look dead, but simply be lying very still as it suns itself.

 

 

Reference

http://www.wikihow.com/Prevent-Snake-Bites

Precautions After Snake bite

  • Stay calm.
  • Treat for shock.
  • Drive to nearest hospital or medical facility.
  • Do not attempt to kill or capture the snake. It gives the snake another opportunity to bite.
  • Do not use a tourniquet. If tied too tight, it may cause the loss of a limb.
  • Do not make cuts through or near the site of the bite.
  • Do not try to suck venom from the site of the bite. You might have a tooth cavity or gum sore and this would place venom into that wound.
  • Do not allow anyone, including a physician, to administer antivenin to you UNLESS you have FIRST been tested to determine whether or not you are allergic to antivenin.

What are the Causes of rabies?

Rabies is a virus  is predominantly spread by a bite from an infected animal.However, it is also possible to become infected if saliva from an infected animal gets into an open wound or through a mucous membrane, such as the eyes or mouth.

How Do People Catch Rabies

casess of rabies

Animals with rabies transfer the virus to other animals and to people via saliva following a bite or via a scratch. However, any contact with the mucous membranes or an open wound can also spread the virus. The transmission of this virus is considered to be exclusively from animal to animal and animal to human.

Once a person has been bitten, the virus spreads through their nerves to the brain. It’s important to note that bites or scratches on the head and neck are thought to speed up the brain and spinal cord involvement because of the location of the initial trauma. If you’re bitten on the neck, seek help as soon as possible.

Following a bite, the rabies virus spreads by way of the nerve cells to the brain. Once in the brain, the virus multiplies rapidly. This activity causes severe inflammation of the brain and spinal cord after which the person deteriorates rapidly and dies.

Animals that Can Spread Rabies

Both wild and domesticated animals can spread the rabies virus. The following animals are the main sources of rabies infection in humans:

  • dogs
  • bats
  • ferrets
  • cats
  • cows
  • goats
  • horses
  • rabbits
  • beavers
  • coyotes
  • foxes
  • monkeys
  • raccoons
  • skunks
  • woodchucks

 

Reference by

Healthline/askdrmakkar

What is Rabies ?

Rabies is a viral infection , spread via saliva. If someone presents with rabies symptoms, it is almost 
always fatal. In countries where stray dogs are present in large numbers, they are the biggest rabies 
threat. 
Rabies is a life-threatening condition that causes tens of thousands of deaths worldwide every 
year. Dogs are the most common source.
dogbite.png
Rabies human deaths are estimated to be 50,000 each year. But the actual infected population 
may be higher as no global rabies monitoring system exits.   
The world health organization (WHO) reports: 
99 % of reported annual rabies deaths occur in Asia , Africa  and  south America. 
90% deaths occurs in Asia. 
60% deaths occurs in India ; incidence is 3 in 1,00,000 population a year.

Symptoms of rabies

The symptoms of rabies can present themselves just a few days after a bite, or they might take 
as long as 12 weeks. Some rare cases report a number of years between the bite and the onset

of symptoms. 
The closer the bite is to your brain, the quicker the effects are likely to appear. 
If you are bitten by a wild animal, it is essential that you seek medical advice as soon as 
possible. 
When the initial symptoms of rabies occur, they can be similar to flu and last 2-12 days, 
becoming progressively stronger. 
From the early flu-like symptoms, the condition worsens and symptoms can include the 
following: 
Anxiety 
Fever 
Headache 
Nausea 
Confusion 
Hyperactivity 
Excess salivation 
Fear of water (hydrophobia) due to difficulty in swallowing 
Hallucinations 
Priapism (permanent erection) 
Photophobia 
Nightmares 
Insomnia 
Partial paralysis. 

 

 
 
Reference by 
Reference by: medicalnewstoday/  rarediseasesindia/worldclassgsd. 

Difference Between venomous and non venomous snake bite ?

Venomous

Character            Venomous

Shape of head:  Usually have Triangular shaped or diamond shaped head.

Pupils:                 Elliptical pupil

Pit:                       Having a hit sensitivity pit on the head

Scales:                 undivided single subcaudal scales

Tail:                      compressed

Bite-marks:         fang marks

Swim in water:  Most of the body afloat

5

 

Non -Venomous

Character            Non -Venomous

Shape of head:  Usually round shaped

Pupils:                  round /pupil  or circular

Pit:                        Often do not have a heat sensing pit on the head

Scales:                  double row subcaudal plates

Tail:                      not much compressed

Bite-marks:         two rows of teeth marks

Swim in water:  often only head showing

 

Reference by

theydiffer.com/ troop471riomedina.org

What is the Snake-bite and Types?

SNAKE-BITE

Snake-bite is a life-threatening medical emergency. It occurs frequently among rural people, especially those working in the fields.

Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, where rural populations are mainly affected. It is a common occupational hazard mainly in farmers, plantation workers, herders and laborers leading to significant morbidity and mortality that remains largely unreported.

India is reported to have the highest number of snake bites (81,000) and deaths (11,000) per year . However, the geographical distribution and statistics are variable in the country due to gross under-reporting, resulting in massive statistical disparity. Estimates of death due to snake bite range widely from 1,300-50,000.

worldwide. Snakes alone are estimated to inflict 3.5 million venomous bites each year, resulting in about 115,000 deaths. The actual number may be much larger. Southeast Asia, India, Brazil, and areas of Africa have the most deaths due to snakebite.

Venomous (poisonous) snake bite

A venomous (poisonous) snake bite is a bite or a puncture wound made by a snake that is capable of injecting, secreting, or spitting a toxin into the penetrated skin wound or, mucus membranes or  the eyes where the toxin can be absorbed

Nonvenomous (nonpoisonous) snake bite

A nonvenomous  (nonpoisonous) snake bite is a bite or puncture wound made by a snake that is incapable of secreting a toxin. This should be distinguished from a dry bite.

renovate.png

renovate2.png

Symptoms of snakebite

  • Fang marks
  • Two puncture wounds
  • Swelling and redness around the wounds
  • pain at the bite site
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Blurred vision
  • Sweating and salivating
  • Numbness in the face and limbs

 

Reference By

http://www.omicsonline.org/

http://www.academia.edu/

http://www.nmji.in/archives

http://www.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.healthline.com/

http://www.instructables.com

http://www.biologydean.com