What are the Causes of rabies?

Rabies is a virus  is predominantly spread by a bite from an infected animal.However, it is also possible to become infected if saliva from an infected animal gets into an open wound or through a mucous membrane, such as the eyes or mouth.

How Do People Catch Rabies

casess of rabies

Animals with rabies transfer the virus to other animals and to people via saliva following a bite or via a scratch. However, any contact with the mucous membranes or an open wound can also spread the virus. The transmission of this virus is considered to be exclusively from animal to animal and animal to human.

Once a person has been bitten, the virus spreads through their nerves to the brain. It’s important to note that bites or scratches on the head and neck are thought to speed up the brain and spinal cord involvement because of the location of the initial trauma. If you’re bitten on the neck, seek help as soon as possible.

Following a bite, the rabies virus spreads by way of the nerve cells to the brain. Once in the brain, the virus multiplies rapidly. This activity causes severe inflammation of the brain and spinal cord after which the person deteriorates rapidly and dies.

Animals that Can Spread Rabies

Both wild and domesticated animals can spread the rabies virus. The following animals are the main sources of rabies infection in humans:

  • dogs
  • bats
  • ferrets
  • cats
  • cows
  • goats
  • horses
  • rabbits
  • beavers
  • coyotes
  • foxes
  • monkeys
  • raccoons
  • skunks
  • woodchucks

 

Reference by

Healthline/askdrmakkar

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What is Rabies ?

Rabies is a viral infection , spread via saliva. If someone presents with rabies symptoms, it is almost 
always fatal. In countries where stray dogs are present in large numbers, they are the biggest rabies 
threat. 
Rabies is a life-threatening condition that causes tens of thousands of deaths worldwide every 
year. Dogs are the most common source.
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Rabies human deaths are estimated to be 50,000 each year. But the actual infected population 
may be higher as no global rabies monitoring system exits.   
The world health organization (WHO) reports: 
99 % of reported annual rabies deaths occur in Asia , Africa  and  south America. 
90% deaths occurs in Asia. 
60% deaths occurs in India ; incidence is 3 in 1,00,000 population a year.

Symptoms of rabies

The symptoms of rabies can present themselves just a few days after a bite, or they might take 
as long as 12 weeks. Some rare cases report a number of years between the bite and the onset

of symptoms. 
The closer the bite is to your brain, the quicker the effects are likely to appear. 
If you are bitten by a wild animal, it is essential that you seek medical advice as soon as 
possible. 
When the initial symptoms of rabies occur, they can be similar to flu and last 2-12 days, 
becoming progressively stronger. 
From the early flu-like symptoms, the condition worsens and symptoms can include the 
following: 
Anxiety 
Fever 
Headache 
Nausea 
Confusion 
Hyperactivity 
Excess salivation 
Fear of water (hydrophobia) due to difficulty in swallowing 
Hallucinations 
Priapism (permanent erection) 
Photophobia 
Nightmares 
Insomnia 
Partial paralysis. 

 

 
 
Reference by 
Reference by: medicalnewstoday/  rarediseasesindia/worldclassgsd. 

Difference Between venomous and non venomous snake bite ?

Venomous

Character            Venomous

Shape of head:  Usually have Triangular shaped or diamond shaped head.

Pupils:                 Elliptical pupil

Pit:                       Having a hit sensitivity pit on the head

Scales:                 undivided single subcaudal scales

Tail:                      compressed

Bite-marks:         fang marks

Swim in water:  Most of the body afloat

5

 

Non -Venomous

Character            Non -Venomous

Shape of head:  Usually round shaped

Pupils:                  round /pupil  or circular

Pit:                        Often do not have a heat sensing pit on the head

Scales:                  double row subcaudal plates

Tail:                      not much compressed

Bite-marks:         two rows of teeth marks

Swim in water:  often only head showing

 

Reference by

theydiffer.com/ troop471riomedina.org

What is the Snake-bite and Types?

SNAKE-BITE

Snake-bite is a life-threatening medical emergency. It occurs frequently among rural people, especially those working in the fields.

Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, where rural populations are mainly affected. It is a common occupational hazard mainly in farmers, plantation workers, herders and laborers leading to significant morbidity and mortality that remains largely unreported.

India is reported to have the highest number of snake bites (81,000) and deaths (11,000) per year . However, the geographical distribution and statistics are variable in the country due to gross under-reporting, resulting in massive statistical disparity. Estimates of death due to snake bite range widely from 1,300-50,000.

worldwide. Snakes alone are estimated to inflict 3.5 million venomous bites each year, resulting in about 115,000 deaths. The actual number may be much larger. Southeast Asia, India, Brazil, and areas of Africa have the most deaths due to snakebite.

Venomous (poisonous) snake bite

A venomous (poisonous) snake bite is a bite or a puncture wound made by a snake that is capable of injecting, secreting, or spitting a toxin into the penetrated skin wound or, mucus membranes or  the eyes where the toxin can be absorbed

Nonvenomous (nonpoisonous) snake bite

A nonvenomous  (nonpoisonous) snake bite is a bite or puncture wound made by a snake that is incapable of secreting a toxin. This should be distinguished from a dry bite.

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Symptoms of snakebite

  • Fang marks
  • Two puncture wounds
  • Swelling and redness around the wounds
  • pain at the bite site
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Blurred vision
  • Sweating and salivating
  • Numbness in the face and limbs

 

Reference By

http://www.omicsonline.org/

http://www.academia.edu/

http://www.nmji.in/archives

http://www.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.healthline.com/

http://www.instructables.com

http://www.biologydean.com